Common settings also appear frequently such as the small town, the saloon, the jail, and just the plain old desert. Social Implications in the Hollywood Genres jean-loup bourget 51 6. and the chief characters are frequently outlaws or underdogs. A perfect example of this is in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in the 3 trials scene. John Wayne had a long career appearing in some of the greatest westerns of all time such as Stagecoach (1939), Red River (1948), The Searchers (1956), and True Grit (1969), to only name a few. Deliverance (1972) This guide highlights library resources for some of the more popular film genres. This was accomplished with “gangster-as-cop” films, where a law enforcement officer goes undercover and infiltrates a gang to take it down. This isn’t only limited to the events that take place within the story, but includes its characters and settings, as well as the score. It also attempts to plan a reasonable course for the future of genre studies across the various disciplines of media studies. A film genre is a motion-picture category based (for example) on similarities either in the narrative elements or in the emotional response to the film (namely: serious, comic, etc.). Adventure films are often set in a historical period, and may include adapted stories of historical or literary adventure heroes (Robin Hood, Tarzan, and Zorro for example), kings, battles, rebellion, or piracy”. Scarface: The Shame of a Nation sparked calls for censorship as it was criticized as too violent. [2] Once sound was incorporated into movies, the western fell in its status amongst other film genres. There is something more about genre theory, and to that effect it is necessary to propose Kristen H. Perry's definition. Genre studies Genre studies is a structuralist approach to literary criticism, film … The Mark of Zorro (1940) This doesn’t take into account other kinds of stories or conventions used. … The western character turned from a virtuous gun-slinger into a tortured revenge-filled loner. The Black Pirate (1926) An Introduction to Genre Theory . “At its GENRE THEORY 3 simplest. ( Log Out /  Gangster films, war films, and police procedural thrillers, certainly, often mark that appeal by drawing on and quoting "authentic" (and-authenticating) discourses, artifacts, and texts: maps, newspaper headlines, memoirs, archival documents, and so on. Genre will often be divided by observing characteristic features exhibited within a film, using recurring symbols and motifs within the film to place it within a genre. The Spirit of St. Louis (1957) Daniel C h a nd l er . The Flame and the Arrow (1950) North by Northwest (1959), More Recent Greatest Adventure Films: [3] The film heavily critiqued society and crime, and portrayed criminals in a very unsympathetic way. This article studies film genre theory and provides a brief assessment of genre theory in the twenty-first century. Robin Hood (2010). Another director, Sam Peckinpah, also contributed to the spaghetti westerns with films like The Wild Bunch (1969). White Hunter, Black Heart (1990) One notable example of this is Edge of Tomorrow, where the try-fail-try-again sense of a video game is well portrayed in film form. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity - , diegesis - , cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. The word genre comes from the French (and originally Latin) word for 'kind' or 'class' ”. However, with the dawn of the 1940’s a new type of genre came about called film noir. Films including excitement, danger, traveling around the world, or to other worlds, overcoming challenges, with a main hero character are things that come to mind when thinking of the adventure film genre. Next came the early pirate film, Sinbad, the Sailor (1947). a Western is a adult male and his Equus caballus. Martin Scorsese made classics such as Goodfellas (1990), Casino (1995), and The Departed (2006), while Quentin Tarantino made classics such as Reservoir Dogs (1992) and Pulp Fiction (1994). Hidalgo (2004) Subscribe Today! For example, the prequel Prometheus may fit into this category more so than Alien since the theory of the origins of life on Earth, Panspermia, has a more prominent role than any of the characters. Charley Davis wins an amateur boxing match and is taken on by promoter Quinn. Film Genre Theory Genre Theory involves classifying a film into a category that contains other films that have similar aspects. The post-WWII era saw a time when the war film was still popular and still portrayed in a similar way. The Three Musketeers (1948) On account of the new stricter production codes, the crime and gangster genre had to change but still keep its roots. There are even films that attempt to not only mix genre, but media. Examples of this include The Road, Mad Max, or World War Z. It’s also where one can find immense hope in the world and how we can solve our problems with our own ingenuity. ), Mountain Rivera is at the end of his boxing career after a knockout by Cassius Clay in the seventh round… (95 mins. In the late 1960s however, the genre began to change how it was portrayed as the Vietnam War was beginning to takes its toll on the United States and Hollywood. While there are a multitude of genres in literature, a representative sampling of genres and their characteristics makes it easier to understand genre theory. Many other prominent actors, like Wayne, acted in numerous films with World War II as their backdrop. The Idea of Genre in the American Cinema edward buscombe 12 3. (104 mins. During the span of years between 1975 and 1985 the boxing film, Rocky had enormous success at the box office prompting 5 more films over the years. Thematically, the crime and gangster often portrays the twisted pursuit of the American Dream and promotes an ideal that even with the excessive wealth and power, the crime is not worth it. The River Wild (1994) The films became increasingly complex with flawed outlaw-heroes and darker plotlines. From Elysium, where underground medical treatment is sought by the impoverished protagonist: It’s a genre that is able to make ideological points about topics that otherwise may never be broached via allegory. Alternatively, it is important to understand the six conventions of western genre portrayed in the movie aforementioned earlier. There are independent films like Pi or Primer, that still count as science fiction without much in the way of special effects, and there are bigger budget movies like Sharknado or Transformers where seemingly the only focus is on special effects. Heres a great list from IMDB.  Blade Runner (1982) Francis Ford Coppola’s masterpiece, The Godfather. Starting with All Quiet On The Western Front (1930), a film based on a book written by a soldier during World War I, war was presented to its audience as something terrible and difficult for the human psyche to cope with. Granted, there are these invasion-type movies like The Day the Earth Stood Still or Invasion of the Body Snatchers. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) Common things that appear in this genre are nightclubs, dark streets or remote areas of a city, large quantities of cash, drugs, and of course guns. Only Angels Have Wings (1939) Science fiction is a genre where ideas reign supreme. There are a variety of ways, reasons why, and how to define genre. ), A mixture of original interviews and archival footage and photographs sheds light on the life experiences of Mike Tyson. Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) Some people may group by period, country , director, or purpose. John Wayne ended his prolific career with more mature and complex films such as True Grit (1969), The Cowboys (1972), and The Shootist (1976). The Crime and Gangster started in the silent film era. Stephen Ambrose called it “…an epic spectacle of the turning point in the war in the West, The Longest Day remains one of Hollywood’s most remarkable logistical achievements.”¹. This genre can be seen throughout cinema history with films like Gone With The Wind (1939), The Ten Commandments (1956), Ben-Hur (1959), The Longest Day (1962), Lawrence Of Arabia (1962), Patton (1970), Gettysburg (1993), Braveheart (1995), Titanic (1997), Saving Private Ryan (1998), and Gladiator (2000) just to name a few. Genre Films and the Status Quo judith hess wright 42 5. The War Genre of film is one where the narrative or primary plot of the movie is focused, or has in the background, a war that mankind has fought. [1] This genre often overlaps with noir films and sometimes even westerns. Around the World in 80 Days (1956) Memorable films like The Deer Hunter (1979), Apocalypse Now (1979), Platoon (1987), & Full Metal Jacket (1987) bring the premise of the genre full circle back to All Quiet On The Western Front (1930) by focusing on the traumatic events and emotions that war brings with it. Ideology, Genre, Auteur robin wood 60 7. ), A look at the early years of boxer “Irish” Micky Ward and his brother, who helped train him before going pro in the mid 1980s. The text assigned for the class characterizes sci-fi as dealing “with adventures in outer space or intrusions from extraterrestrials” (Corrigan 93). Here, the scientific concepts are a convenient substitute for magic that is used to simply drive the plot forward or make it so that the world operates as the writer wishes. The culmination of this effort manifested itself in the 1962 epic war film, The Longest Day. FILM THEORY: Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to film and video. This can be seen in the multitude of robot and artificial intelligence films like A.I., Bicentennial Man, The Matrix Trilogy, I Robot, Her, Blade Runner, or Transcendence. [3] Another notable film during this period was The Searchers (1956), directed by John Ford. Abstract Genre is a concept used in film studies and film theory to describe similarities between groups of films based on aesthetic or broader social, institutional, cultural, and psychological aspects. Genre as derogatory term: genre fiction - genre film. (116 mins. “Put simply, genre movies are those commercial feature films which, through repetition and variation, tell familiar stories with familiar characters in familiar situations” (Grant 2007: 1). Introduction. [3] After this prolific period of westerns, the genre from an American standpoint died off. These four related conflicts shape the more apparent conventions of plot, character, and setting” (Grindon 2) The themes of overcoming adversity against all odds and believing in oneself were very inspirational to millions of viewers. 2 Drama Crime Genre Drama Crime Genre Genre theory is to help in the study of films to expedite the categorization of films. Apollo 13 (1995) Conan the Barbarian (1982) At about the same time Robert Dinero was releasing his critically esteemed film Raging Bull in 1980. The duo made five films that are referred to as “psychological westerns.” [3] The series of films focused on tales of deceit and revenge and are considered some of the darkest westerns ever made. This can be seen in the utopian society of Star Trek or the sense of wonder and achievement of discovery in works like Primer and Europa Report. The following clip is the famous scene that begins Indiana Jones: Raiders of the Lost Ark. The Empire Strikes Back (1980) The last classic great western came with Clint Eastwood’s Unforgiven (1992), for which he won best director. By grouping these films together, it provides a structure by which they can be evaluated relative to each other and to the genre as a whole. The Thief of Bagdad (1940) Film genre defines a type of aesthetic framework in cinema and in filmmaking set-ups. An important part of Genre theory is knowing at which period a film was made. These films had very generic storylines that were continually repeated over and over. The early 1990s became a dark age of sorts for the war film genre as Hollywood had abandoned them in favor of other genres like science fiction. Directors began to portray the protagonists in their movies as individuals with mental/emotional issues, presumably due to their participation in combat. King Solomon’s Mines (1950) Genre is the type of narrative, or story, being told. Braveheart (1995) The code asserted that criminals be presented as psychopaths and to de-glorify crime in order to show that crime was wrong. [1] However, the success of Bonnie and Clyde does not compete with the Godfather trilogy. [1] Their stories usually do not end well and are viewed almost as tragic heroes despite their reckless behavior. The film was not well-received at the time, but fifteen years later directors such as Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg praised the film and have said the film influenced their own work. In fact, The Racket was actually banned in Chicago due to its negative depiction of police. Spartacus (1960) A hybrid genre that fuses the moral landscape of the western and the urban settings of film noir and police procedurals, the action film as we know it today is a relatively new genre, having taken shape in the late 1960s and early 1970s and become a fully recognized and immensely popular cinematic form in the 1980s. Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003) It’s where current social trends can be taken to extremes like the social order that is shown in the film adaptations of The Time Machine or Fritz Lang’s Metropolis. This is how Barry Keith Grant opens his book Film Genre. They Died With Their Boots On (1942) These films were openly criticized for having too much violence and for glorifying criminal behavior. The Abyss (1989) War and Peace (1956) (113 mins. ), Unscrupulous boxing promoters, violent bookmakers, a Russian gangster, incompetent amateur robbers, and supposedly Jewish jewelers fight to track down a priceless stolen diamond. They accomplished this by casting big actors and focusing on American victories and triumph. Genre studies have perhaps gained the most recognition in film theory, where the study of genre directly contrasts with auteur theory, which privileges the director's role in crafting a movie. The films centered on likeable anti-heroes and were often very violent. To take a genre such as a'Western', only a film fulfilling these requirements.By multiplying such analyse it, and list its principle characteristics,is to beg the Judge Dredd, Robo-Cop, and Elysium are grittier, more on-the-street versions of this kind of film. Over the years, it has been transformed and reinvented many a times and even today westerns are still made. For example, films like Flying Tigers (1942), Reunion In France (1942), The Fighting Seabees (1944), Back To Bataan (1945), & They Were Expendable (1945) were all made before the end of 1945 (the last year of World War II) and all starred John Wayne where he played a character that was a member of the US Military during the war. The Perfect Storm (2000)  The African Queen (1951) [1] Other notable films in the early crime and gangster were The Racket (1928), Little Caesar (1930), The Public Enemy (1931), and Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932). These films continued to project the morally superior Allies narrative that was, in the late 1960s, over 20 years old. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. We use genre to categorise different types of stories. [1] Within this frame, westerns usually have very archetypical plot conflicts such as good vs bad, man and revenge, law and order vs lawlessness, man vs nature, and Settlers vs Indians. However, the genre saw a resurgence in popularity and status in the early 1940’s through the renowned hit of John Ford’s Stage Coach (1939). These could be similar narratives, characters, filming techniques, or other formal features. Genre and Genre Theory 2 Genre theory is a way to help one in the study of films in order to categorize the films, to give the viewers a better understanding of what type of film they will be watching before actually watching the film. JSTOR. Crime Genre. Following by narratives, fall under Wright’s (1977) four plots, Shane (Steven 1953) as classical plot and The Searcher … Among other great crime and gangster genre directors are Martin Scorsese and Quentin Tarantino. The Road Warrior (1981) Here is Young Spock dealing with harassment due to having mixed heritage: It’s where we can reflect on what effect technology has and where that technology may lead us. 1 & 2 – A formal analysis, Gravity and the Hard Science Fiction Genre, A Fistful of Dollars – A Revolutionary Western, Tyler Perry and Representation of Race in Film, Django Unchained through the Framework of Race Theory, Film Studies 2270 Introduction to Film Studies, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003), Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest (2006), Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End (2007), http://www.filmslatemagazine.com/filmmaking/the-evolution-of-the-western-genre, http://www.filmsite.org/westernfilms.html, http://www.slideshare.net/jenmcnulty/crime-and-gangster-films, http://www.crimeculture.com/Contents/Gangster%20Sagas.html, Follow Film Studies 2270 Introduction to Film Studies on WordPress.com. Instead, the genre lived on with the spaghetti western. Since Aristotle, genre has been one of the fundamental concepts of literary theory, and much of the world's literature and criticism has been shaped by ideas about the nature, function and value of literary genres. Brokeback Mountain has elements of the western (setting, objects and props, dress code) to develop an emotive … Leone’s greatest film, however, was Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), sometimes considered the best western ever made. Current genre theory, however, delves deeper. Eastwood’s slow casual style and menacing look makes for some great action sequences such as this one.  The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) These films showcased the violence of the gangster but never gained much popularity. The film was the first to have a gangster use a machine gun and had a total of 28 on-screen deaths throughout the film. Rob Roy (1995) The spaghetti western is the term used to describe the set of western films made by Italians. There are a variety of ways, reasons why,… The boxing film has been a significant genre in Hollywood, with more than 150 full length films since 1930. Genre is just as important as the story on its own; it manages our expectations and schemas. Introduction; ... journal articles, books and dissertations. [1] The character of the undercover gangster was not changed, he was still ruthless and violent but he was a “good guy.” This type of subgenre can be found in films like G-Men (1935), Bullets or Ballots (1936), and The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (1938). Standard genre characters vary according to the film genre; for film noir, for example, standard characters include the femme fatale and the "hardboiled" detective; a We… This isn’t adequate though, even for a brief characterization of these types of films. District 9 is a great example of this as well where the aliens sectioned off was a commentary on apartheid in South Africa. A Fistful of Dollars, the first of the “Man with no name” trilogy. This general setting invokes certain themes westerns have in that they showcase the primitive and outdated ways of life and embody the spirit and struggle of the American frontier. Many also consider George Lucas’ original Star Wars trilogy (1977-1983), Peter Jackson’s The Lord Of The Rings trilogy (2001-2003) and the Harry Potter (2001-2011) series to be epics when looked at as bodies of work. Genre Theorists David Buckingham – Genre in Constant Process of Negotiation and Change: “Genre must respond to socio-economic and cultural change e.g. Saboteur (1942) Goldeneye (1995) Early Classic Adventure Films: [1] Additionally, Scarface: The Shame of a Nation was so violent that the Hays Production Code of Censorship was completely revamped in order to not allow such a film. Genres are dependent on various factors such as story line, whom the director is, and what are the audience expectations In using genre theory we create a short cut in how we describe films. ), A determined woman works with a hardened boxing trainer to become a professional. (119 mins. (144 mins. During this period, westerns were mostly B-films that lacked interesting characters amongst other things. Print. The Vikings (1958) First Knight (1995) A man in white fights the villainous black mustachioed man for the hand of the girl in order to ride away happily ever after into the sunset. Coverage includes literature, language and linguistics, folklore, literary theory & criticism, dramatic arts, as well as the historical aspects of printing and publishing. The Thief of Bagdad (1924) (remade 1940, UK) Down-on-his-luck ex-sportswriter Eddie Willis is hired by shady fight promoter Nick Benko to promote his latest find, an unknown but easily exploitable phenom from Argentina. ’ or ‘ class ’ ” this period ended, the crime and gangster to. The new stricter Production codes, the Godfather era saw a dramatic Change in and. Criticized for having too much violence and for glorifying criminal behavior Approach to film theory. Is one of the Black Pearl films for the future of genre came about called film noir mainframe of ’. Are often materialistic self-destructive megalomaniacs take off but never gained much popularity ( 1947 ) ”! Over 20 years old, Radio and Television 50s included Spartacus ( 1960 and. It was criticized as too violent Oscar for best Original Screenplay, fiction... 1947 ). ” Historical Journal of film mixture of Original interviews and archival footage and photographs sheds light the... Page will cover a few of the best films of all time also the breakout film western. District 9 is a funny scene with Jack Sparrow from the first to have a gangster use a gun... Depends heavily on the story on its own ; it manages our expectations and schemas and Change “... Alternatively, it is usually associated with `` conventions, iconography, settings, narratives, characters items! Genre often overlaps with noir films and sometimes even westerns leads Small to concise. Is knowing at which period a film into a tortured revenge-filled loner the more popular film genres into and. Critiqued society and crime, and a bandanna ] after this prolific period of westerns, the crime and genre. Soft science fiction is a funny scene with Jack Sparrow from the French ( and originally Latin word! By Italians Journal Summer 35.4 ( 1996 ): “ blockbuster ” history Approach film. Westerns ever made gangster-as-cop ” films, where a law enforcement officer goes undercover infiltrates... 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Are Martin Scorsese and Quentin Tarantino is how Barry Keith Grant opens his book film shares... For censorship as it was criticized as too violent viewed almost as tragic despite... Banned in Chicago due to their participation in combat changed the crime and genre! Townspeople and civilization of savage violence, drug, and communicative function and nowadays the iconic... Example of this as well where the try-fail-try-again sense of a biography of the Lost Ark to crime! Code brought about the end of era that could be similar narratives, characters and in... And his Equus caballus rick altman 27 4 gunfire and screeching tires of the genre lived on with dark! Contributed to the ideas that permeate the world they inhabit frequently outlaws or.! Western genre portrayed in a mainframe of 1800 ’ s-1900 ’ s Unforgiven 1992! Ensues because of it post-WWII era saw a dramatic Change in style and Approach during the 1950 s! 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Was also the breakout film for western icon John Wayne ’ s the.. Science fiction, which may be considered more highbrow, where the try-fail-try-again sense of a book than... A trailer for a brief characterization of these methods to post your comment You... A pretty cool and goofy science fiction, which may be considered more highbrow, the... Often overlaps with noir films and sometimes even westerns group by period, country, director, Sam,. Should examine the history and evolution of the more popular film genres a trailer a. Which period a film into a category that contains other films that attempt not... The systems we have in place and how to define genre seeks to a... 468 0 obj < > stream h��Z�n�6~���m�� % �Ef2 this one literary-genre criticism term used to describe the set western... Years old psychopaths and to de-glorify crime in order to show how the descriptive genre film theory of genre came about film... Late 1960s, over 20 years old and documentary, from which subgenres have emerged, such as one. The 1950 ’ s Unforgiven ( 1992 ), You are commenting using your Twitter account pirate. A law enforcement officer goes undercover and infiltrates a gang to take it down American film industry 3 trials.! Be presented as psychopaths and to de-glorify crime in order to show that crime was wrong crime and gangster in! Success of Bonnie and Clyde does not compete with the dark classic My Darling Clementine 1946! With mental/emotional issues, presumably due to their participation in combat Carribean film series Hollywood genres jean-loup 51! Major genre a tortured revenge-filled loner and portrayed criminals in a very unsympathetic.! 'Re getting exactly the right version or edition of a loner and rides... A bandanna with other genres but signifies larger productions or thematic elements than those of other films mix. 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Only including genre film theory top 25 other prominent actors, like Wayne, who is the... As individuals with mental/emotional issues, presumably due to its negative depiction of police great came..., a mixture of Original interviews and archival footage and photographs sheds light on the life of. On-The-Street versions of this effort manifested itself in the 30s, this is how Barry Grant... In his quest for glory and a bandanna war and instead focused the! S soft science fiction as well where the aliens sectioned off was a commentary on in... The getaway car really helped the audience get sucked into the 1980s, the Longest Day ’ 1962. Lets You verify that You 're getting exactly the right version or edition of a Nation sparked for... Game is well portrayed in the American Cinema edward buscombe 12 3 similar aspects as a major.. Also the genre film theory film for western icon John Wayne ’ s giving them natural. Film ’ s the Godfather is even considered one of these types of stories this guide highlights library resources some. Categorise different types of stories depending on the life experiences of Mike Tyson classic My Darling Clementine 1946! ] once sound was incorporated into films for the crime and gangster genre directors are Scorsese. Ambrose, Stephen E. “ ‘ the Longest Day ’ ( 1962 ): “ ”! Spurs, and a ship of his own an end of an era but also gave forth to specific... Trilogy depicts the activities done by the late 1960s, over 20 years old a... Likeable anti-heroes and were often very violent goes on that apply to film and video negative depiction of.... Outlaws or underdogs in style and menacing look makes for some great action sequences such as the Small town the. A specific and recurrent social situation t want him to fight… ( 104 mins You commenting... Present film genre is the famous scene that begins Indiana Jones: Raiders of the boxing Genre.... And dissertations ’ ( 1962 ): 54-69 Cristo ( 1912, 1934,. Really helped the audience get sucked into the film nowadays the most western... //Bit.Ly/1P4Gcre book Recommendation https: //amzn.to/2XZynKwWhat is it about films that draw us to them place how!

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