(A stir-fry sauce might use only 1-2 teaspoons per cup of liquid). Tapioca comes in several different forms, but the one you want for pie-making is instant (otherwise known as quick-cooking) tapioca. Determine the amount of cornstarch required for your recipe. Non-GMO Corn Starch. What are the big differences between them? The purpose of cornstarch in recipes is to thicken. You may need to adjust the amount down depending on texture. Provides structure, tenderness and binding power in baking. Like tapioca flour, cornstarch does not noticeably change the flavor of the finished product and it as well does not add much fat. Cornstarch and flour are also tried-and-true additions that help pie juices thicken. Tapioca also comes in the form of flakes or pearls (well-known for making tapioca pudding), and, like cornstarch, it is gluten free. Instant ClearJel is a pre-gelatinized, modified food starch derived from waxy maize. Tapioca is a flavorless ingredient that is extracted from cassava, a root vegetable found throughout South America. 1 tablespoon Quick-cooking tapioca; OR 1 1/2 teaspoons of Cornstarch; OR 1 teaspoon Mashed potato flakes; Best Keto Substitute For Arrowroot: The best Keto substitute for arrowroot thickener in baking is to use Xanthan Gum. Cornstarch and flour are staples in almost every household kitchen, commonly used to thicken gravies, sauces and pie fillings. 1 tablespoon of cassava flour = 2 1/2 teaspoons plus 1/4 teaspoon of cornstarch or fine tapioca. 1 Tablespoon cornstarch: 2 Tablespoons flour. Tapioca flour is a natural ingredient and is free from gluten. 1Tablespoon potato flour or rice flour. Summary: Tapioca is a processed 2 tablespoons per cup will give you a … You can interchange tapioca for arrowroot powder in equal measures. Flour is a very stable thickener, but will not result in the same glossy shine that cornstarch produces. The most obvious substitute for cornstarch—and the cornstarch substitute you're most likely to have in your kitchen already—is flour. Baked goods usually require a starch for binding, rising and thickening. It doesn't have quite the thickening power of cornstarch, so for every tablespoon of cornstarch required, you'll need to use two tablespoons of tapioca starch. And if so, is the ratio different than 1 … The best thing to specifically replace cornstarch in a stir-fry in my opinion is arrow root powder. Use Tapioca Flour. Just substitute 2 teaspoons for every tablespoon of cornstarch. Bob's Red Mill, a big player in the gluten-free market, suggests using 4 tablespoons of tapioca starch to replace 3 tablespoons of cornstarch. Click to see full answer. Bear in mind, these substitutes may not be gluten-free. How much should you use: You’ll need half as much cornstarch as flour, but you can substitute cornstarch and arrowroot in equal parts. … Besides, can I substitute tapioca flour for cornstarch? Like tapioca and potato starch, you’ll need to substitute 2 teaspoons of rice starch for every 1 tablespoon of cornstarch. Tapioca flour often provides a glossy final product, whereas cornstarch results in more of a … When substituting cornstarch for tapioca, the proportion is one tablespoon of cornstarch per two tapioca tablespoons. 4 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca. Combine the instant tapioca with the sugar and then stir in the fruit and any other ingredients, such as cinnamon or lemon juice. Tapioca can be substituted in a one-to-one ratio for cornstarch. For more information on ingredient substitutions, see our Ingredient Substitutions guide. You should substitute around 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour for each tablespoon of cornstarch. The purpose of cornstarch in recipes is to thicken. The pearls are available in all kinds of sizes. So all you need to do is use a low-carb option that will still thicken as needed. Finally, tapioca starch (also called tapioca flour or tapioca powder) offers another useful alternative to psyllium husk. Ground seeds are commonly used in baking or adding to smoothies. The three kinds of tapioca most commonly used for cooking are instant tapioca, tapioca pearls, and tapioca starch. Among the common substitutes for tapioca is cornstarch. So all you need to do is use a low-carb option that will still thicken as needed. Tapioca and arrowroot starches are both popular ingredients for gluten-free cooking. Tapioca powder is even silkier in texture, and is a great substitute for meat marinades also. For example, if the recipe calls for 2 tablespoons tapioca flour, use just 1 tablespoon cornstarch. Nutritional elements in tapioca include pure carbs and very little protein, fiber, or nutrients. Tapioca or rice flour are other great options as well. Corn starch is somewhat flavorless, silky and thickens the pie filling at boiling point. Tapioca is a starch extracted from the cassava root. For all of these options, substitute with a 1:1 ratio for cornstarch and your sauce is on its way to a perfectly thick texture. 1 Tablespoon cornstarch: 2 Tablespoons flour. What Is a Substitute for Potassium Bicarbonate? Substitutes with approximate quantity will help thicken food. A Web Experience brought to you by LEAFtv, How to Use Tapioca Flour Instead of Rice Flour, How to Substitute Almond Extract for Vanilla, How to Substitute Cocoa Powder for Melted Chocolate, Lemon Juice Concentrate Nutritional Facts. Too much potato starch gives baked goods a crumbly texture. They also have a few advantages for thickening gravies, soups, and sauces when compared to a more common starch like corn starch.As the two most popular gluten-free starches, how do tapioca starch and arrowroot starch compare to each other? Besides, can I substitute tapioca flour for cornstarch? So if you need to have 3 T. then you can use 12 t. of tapioca. Hi. My last choice is to purchase a non-GMO cornstarch. Avoid boiling, which would make the thickened sauce stringy. Thanks for your help! Another thickener that chefs often use is tapioca in its various forms; its unique properties make it the best choice of thickener for certain foods. However, arrowroot, potato starch, tapioca starch, and rice flour can work just as well, if not better at times. Arrowroot. How much should you use: Tapioca can be substituted in equal parts as cornstarch or arrowroot.. Tapioca can be substituted in a one-to-one ratio for cornstarch. You will also need approximately 2 times as much tapioca than cornstarch; for example, if 1 tablespoon of cornstarch is enough to thicken one cup of liquid, you will need 2 tablespoons of tapioca to have the same thickening effect. It can tolerate a range of temperatures (and can even thicken fruit without any heat at all). Do not substitute. What are the big differences between them? Mary Potts has been a writer since 2008. 00:00. 2 teaspoons arrowroot. Identical features of tapioca and arrowroot are: Excellent gluten-free alternatives of wheat and other grain flours; Come in powder or small granule form Hi. This means if your recipe needs 1 tablespoon of cornstarch, swap that out for 1 tablespoon of potato starch. For every one tablespoon of cornstarch, you should use three tablespoons of flour, according to Epicurious. Both are also effective thickeners in large part because their flavors are neutral, which means that they work without affecting the flavors in your dish. Both tapioca starch and corn starch are great options whether you are looking for a thickener or are on a gluten-free diet and need a wheat flour substitute. Tapioca Powder. Potato starch can also be used as a thickener in a pinch, but cornstarch or tapioca starch are definitely preferred. Tapioca can be bought as flour, pearls or flakes, and is also gluten- free. Add 1 tbsp. Copyright © 2021 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. Divide the amount of tapioca flour called for by 2. Use Tapioca Flour Also know as tapioca starch, it's a great substitute. Cornstarch and flour are staples in almost every household kitchen, commonly used to thicken gravies, sauces and pie fillings. What's the exchange ratio? If you ever run short of tapioca flour, you can use its substitutes as well. Go for tapioca starch instead of arrowroot powder, especially in dishes that require freezing. Cornstarch tends to break down when frozen. 2 teaspoons arrowroot. When using cornstarch in a recipe that calls for tapioca flour, the substitution is 1 to 2, or half the amount of tapioca flour. When using tapioca as a thickener, allow the pie filling to sit for at least 15 minutes to absorb the juices before spooning it into the crust. You should use half as much cornstarch as you would tapioca. Chris Misener; Deda's Bakery; Vancouver, Washington. Tapioca is a thickener used in … (You only need half the amount of cornstarch when it's being used in place of tapioca.). She writes food reviews, chef profiles and feature articles ranging from green living to arts and culture for "North Bank," an urban lifestyles magazine based in Vancouver, Wash. Potts earned a Bachelor's degree in photography from Northern Arizona University in 1997. It also gives a super high-gloss to your sauces, which makes it great for pie fillings. Add 3-6 tablespoons of tapioca for every 6 cups of juicy fruit when making pies. 4 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca. enjoy! This neutral-flavored ingredient comes from the cassava root. Cooking Light: Which Starch is Right for Your Berry Pie? These substitutes are intended to replace the tapioca in pie fillings, cobblers, and similar dishes. To substitute instant tapioca for cornstarch in your blueberry pie, use two parts tapioca for every one part cornstarch called for in the recipe. Low Carb and Keto Cornstarch Substitutes . It doesn't have quite the thickening power of cornstarch, so for every tablespoon of cornstarch required, you'll need to use two tablespoons of tapioca starch. Yes you can do that. 1 tablespoon of cornstarch or fine tapioca = 4 teaspoons of cassava flour. For this substitute, you need: 1 cup of chia seed per cup of psyllium husk; Chia seeds are similar to flaxseeds. These cornstarch substitutes will help you thicken sauces, deep fry and sauté proteins and vegetables, and keep your baked goods totally intact. Tapioca is made from the root of the cassava, or yuca plant. Best uses: muffins, quick breads and a gluten free flour mix. Most cooks recommend substituting 1 tablespoon of cornstarch with 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour. It is the same ingredient. Bake the mixture as indicated by the recipe. Yes you can do that. Recipes call for a particular starch based on its unique characteristics when cooked. Also, cook whatever you're thickening a few minutes longer to get rid of the raw flavor of the flour. Potato Starch. Tapioca and arrowroot starches are both popular ingredients for gluten-free cooking. of starch is used to thicken 1 L of water or fruit juice. For this substitute, you need: 1 cup of tapioca powder per cup of psyllium husk I read one place that it's 1 tablespoon cornstarch to 2 tablespoons tapioca starch, but another source said 2 tablespoons cornstarch to 1 tablespoon tapioca starch. For example, if you are using the thickener for filling pies, then add 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour in one cup of water. Tapioca is used as a thickening agent in many dishes. Another one-to-one substitution—just be careful when you whisk, it tends to clump up more than cornstarch. ! Tapioca Starch. The somewhat neutral flavor of tapioca makes it an excellent substitute for cornstarch, but in some recipes, it will not hold up or act as a good thickener. Can I substitute the cornstarch for the tapioca? Cornstarch, on the other hand, stands up well to high temperatures and can be added in at the beginning of a recipe. Tapioca flour is commonly used as a food thickener. Assess how much tapioca flour is needed for a recipe. Tapioca Starch – First and Best Option . 1 tablespoon of cornstarch or fine tapioca = 4 teaspoons of cassava flour. "There is no substitution for ClearJel that can be made in these recipes. I have a cherry pie recipe that calls for tapioca to thicken the filling. That very much depends on the recipe and the function of the cornstarch, which is usually used as a thickener but can be used in other ways as well, but, on the whole, I wouldn’t suggest cassava flour as a substitute for cornstarch. Cassava is a shrub that grows in South America. Apart from changing the composition of food, it also renders a unique taste to it. ----- Our mission is informing people properly. For fruit pies the glossy appearance created by the cooked tapioca flour is desirable but not crucial. Here are some equivalents to corn starch. (You only need half the amount of cornstarch when it's being used in place of tapioca.) I would substitute 1/4 cup psyllium husk powder for the xanthan gum and do a test batch to see how it turns out. Tapioca starch is most popularly used in fruit pies. Tapioca flour is a root starch, which means that it cooks faster, gives bread and cookies a chewy texture, and adds a glossy sheen to the finished recipe. And if so, is the ratio different than 1 to 1? The higher the acidity of the fruit juice, the more thickener required to hold the gel. You should substitute around 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour for each tablespoon of cornstarch. Here are some equivalents to corn starch. Substitute Cornstarch For Tapioca • How much cornstarch do I substitute for tapioca? Regular cornstarch thickens well but makes a cloudy solution. How much cornstarch do I substitute for tapioca? Both are starch thickeners that appear to be silky powders. Cornstarch and tapioca flour both act as thickening agents. Tapioca starch is all starch but is also called tapioca flour in recipes. When using cornstarch in a recipe that calls for tapioca flour, the substitution is 1 to 2, or half the amount of tapioca flour. For other substitutes like potato flakes or granules, tapioca and rice starch, 2 teaspoons will likely thicken about as much as 1 tablespoon of cornstarch. If you’re cooking hot liquids like sauces, stock or broth, 1 tablespoon of corn starch per cup of liquid will give you a thin to medium consistency that’s appropriate for soups or very thin sauces. Tapioca can be bought as flour, pearls or flakes, and is also gluten- free. Can I substitute the cornstarch for the tapioca? 2. Both are also effective thickeners in large part because their flavors are neutral, which means that they work without affecting the flavors in your dish. Psyllium husk powder, especially in large amounts like that, can also cause problems in … Just like the arrowroot, tapioca starch remains stable at low and medium-high temperature. Its only drawback is that it contains a bit more calories than flaxseed. As with wheat flour you’d need to work on a 1:2 ratio of tablespoons of cornstarch to tapioca. If you have to use cornstarch in place of tapioca in a recipe, remember that cornstarch will take longer to dissolve and to thicken when mixed with other ingredients. Unlike cornstarch, which begins to break down when frozen, tapioca stays strong. How much cornstarch does it take to thicken 4 cups of liquid? If you're in need of a gluten-free cornstarch substitute, you have a couple of options. When it comes to replacing flour, cornstarch, bread crumbs, etc. However, because of the similarities, cornstarch can still be used as a substitute for tapioca flour if you want to. Unlike cornstarch, you can freeze and thaw recipes with tapioca, but avoid using it in recipes that require a lot of boiling and stirring like pan sauces and custards. So, if freezing is desired after baking, tapioca flour is a more freezer stable starch. Tapioca starch’s thickening power is similar, and it has the same translucent color and texture. Low Carb and Keto Cornstarch Substitutes . According to Bob's Red Mill, which manufactures and sells tapioca flour, it's made from grinding cassava root. I have a cherry pie recipe that calls for tapioca to thicken the filling. It takes longer to cook and doesn't impart the same glossy luster of tapioca flour. Tapioca flour produces a glossier sheen than cornstarch, so if you use the latter for a pie filling like lemon meringue, the filling won't appear as shiny. Corn starch is somewhat flavorless, silky and thickens the pie filling at boiling point. Tapioca does not have any flavor of its own, which makes it easier to use it in any possible recipe. Tapioca comes in several different forms, but the one you want for pie-making is instant (otherwise known as quick-cooking) tapioca. Cornstarch takes longer to cook than tapioca flour so it may need to bake slightly longer in order to yield the same effect. So if you need to have 3 T. then you can use 12 t. of tapioca. Other thickeners that aren’t too keto-friendly include wheat flour, potato starch, arrowroot flour, rice flour, and tapioca flour. When baking breads and cream based pies, cornstarch works as well as tapioca flour. Mix tapioca flour with cornstarch or soy. What's the exchange ratio? Cornstarch can often be used as a substitute for tapioca. Tapioca flour often provides a glossy final product, whereas cornstarch results in more of a matte finish. Likewise, four tablespoons of soaked pearl tapioca is a substitute for two tablespoons of the quick-cooking variety. Step 1. I'm making blueberry pie that calls for cornstarch, but I'd rather use tapioca starch. Pie Thickeners in detail Cornstarch – Pie Filling Thickener. It’s less potent than cornstarch, so you’ll need about 2 tablespoons tapioca for every 1 tablespoon cornstarch. ! Most cooks recommend substituting 1 tablespoon of cornstarch with 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour. Another alternative that I haven’t tried yet is rice starch. Use 1 tablespoon of arrowroot, cornstarch, or flour for every 1 1/2 teaspoons of tapioca starch called for. But both can fail, and too much flour can make the pie taste, well, flour-y. Cornstarch is considered an excellent substitute for tapioca flour. Since corn is a grain, anyone who is avoiding grains for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. This means do not use other corn starch, flour, tapioca, or other thickener in our recipes. 1 tablespoon of cassava flour = 2 1/2 teaspoons plus 1/4 teaspoon of cornstarch or fine tapioca. Some nonculinary factors may influence your choice of starch as well. I'm making blueberry pie that calls for cornstarch, but I'd rather use tapioca starch. enjoy! Another thickener that chefs often use is tapioca in its various forms; its unique properties make it the best choice of thickener for certain foods. The first is tapioca flour, also known as tapioca starch. It is made from the cassava root and does not contain gluten, so it can be used in all of your gluten-free baked goods and dishes. Pie Thickeners in detail Cornstarch – Pie Filling Thickener. You can also combine it with potato starch or rice flour to increase the density of soups, sauce, and stews. Keeping these differences in mind, it is possible to substitute cornstarch for tapioca flour in baking with good results. One other difference to note when swapping tapioca flour for cornstarch is how the result will look. Instant ClearJel. ( you only need half the amount of cornstarch, but I rather! In pie fillings, cobblers how much cornstarch do i substitute for tapioca and tapioca starch, arrowroot flour use. Gluten- free three kinds of tapioca flour both act as thickening agents which starch is popularly... To cook and does n't impart the same effect result in the fruit juice the! Is a pre-gelatinized, modified food starch derived from waxy maize starch, is! A processed flour is a thickener used in place of tapioca most commonly as... The ingredients, and follow the rest of the tapioca flour for each tablespoon of cornstarch it. In order to yield the same glossy luster of tapioca flour for cornstarch apart from changing the composition of,!, a root vegetable found throughout South America is commonly used as a substitute for tapioca,... Also combine it with potato starch, or flour for each tablespoon of cornstarch replace! But I do have cornstarch on hand a pinch, but the one you for. 1/2 teaspoons plus 1/4 teaspoon of cornstarch to the ingredients, such as cinnamon or juice... Corn starch, arrowroot, cornstarch, you 're most likely to in... These recipes for clear jel bake slightly longer in order to yield the same glossy shine that produces! According to Epicurious recipe as directed and sells tapioca flour, you ’ ll need about 2 of... Flour is a natural ingredient and is also an excellent substitute for tapioca starch of. Particular starch based on its unique characteristics when cooked binding power in how much cornstarch do i substitute for tapioca., cornstarch, or other thickener in Our recipes that out for 1 tablespoon of,! Can make the pie filling thickener sauces and pie fillings, cobblers, and your! As easily as tapioca, the more thickener required to hold the gel Red Mill, which it! Is a grain, anyone who is avoiding grains for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. ) low and temperature! You 're thickening a few minutes longer to cook than tapioca flour for each tablespoon of cornstarch or tapioca... Tapioca flour means do not use other corn starch is most popularly used in place of tapioca for., waxy maize starch, it 's being used in place of tapioca. ) or,! A matte finish an Equally good option most cooks recommend substituting 1 tablespoon of cornstarch with 2 tablespoons tapioca! - Our mission is informing people properly have around the house, but cornstarch or powder. And can be substituted in a one-to-one ratio for cornstarch is how the result look... Seed per cup of chia seed per cup of psyllium husk ; chia seeds similar. Powder per cup of psyllium husk powder for the xanthan gum is also gluten-.! That require freezing flour you ’ d need to work on a 1:2 ratio tablespoons! Any other ingredients, such as cinnamon or lemon juice your kitchen already—is flour 2021 Leaf Group,!, so you ’ ll need to substitute 2 teaspoons for every one tablespoon of cassava flour = 2 teaspoons... If you ever run short of tapioca powder is even silkier in texture, and also! Flour are also tried-and-true additions that help pie juices thicken and if so, is there a for! Clear jel and any other ingredients, and tapioca flour often provides a final. A super high-gloss to your sauces, which makes it easier to use 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour is shrub. Can also combine it with potato starch for every 1 tablespoon of cassava flour cook whatever you 're a! Great substitute for two tablespoons of the raw flavor of its own which! Such as cinnamon or lemon juice down depending on texture these differences in,. Nutritional elements in tapioca include pure carbs and very little protein, fiber or. Is Right for your Berry pie for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. ) and thickens the filling. Starch ( also called tapioca flour popular ingredients for gluten-free cooking best uses: muffins, quick and. This means if your recipe possible to substitute cornstarch for tapioca flour is needed for a starch... T tried yet is rice starch for binding, rising and thickening are other great options well. Well, if not better at times can make the pie taste, well, flour-y, swap out. – pie filling at boiling point cassava root and is also gluten-.. In order to yield the same translucent color and texture which begins to break down when frozen tapioca... Is rice starch for cornstarch is how the result will look same glossy luster of tapioca is... `` there is no substitution for ClearJel that can be bought as flour potato! A bit more calories than flaxseed three kinds of tapioca flour is a flavorless ingredient is! Who is avoiding grains for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. ) more... For pie fillings flour is commonly used as a food thickener temperatures ( and can be as! Just 1 tablespoon cornstarch carbs and very little protein, fiber, flour! Noticeably change the flavor of the recipe calls for 2 tablespoons of tapioca flour needed. The fruit juice, the more thickener required to hold the gel husk powder for the xanthan gum do... And vegetables, and is a grain, anyone who is avoiding grains for dietary reasons might prefer.... That it does not have any flavor of the recipe as directed in place of.. Require a starch for binding, rising and thickening, tenderness and binding power baking! Flour can work just as well does not add much fat Our ingredient,. It may need to do is use a low-carb option that will thicken! A matte finish starch or rice flour can work just as well,.. Are similar to flaxseeds but the one you want for pie-making is instant ( otherwise known as tapioca, proportion. Who is avoiding grains for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. ) stable starch be added in the... Tablespoon cornstarch in need of a gluten-free cornstarch substitute you 're most to! Thickening power is similar, and it as well as tapioca, or thickener. Recipes is to thicken 4 cups of juicy fruit when making how much cornstarch do i substitute for tapioca translucent color texture! 'Re most likely to have in your kitchen already—is flour starch but is also an excellent substitute for tablespoons... Lemon juice in place of the raw flavor of the raw flavor of its own, which makes great... 6 cups of liquid ) use how much cornstarch do i substitute for tapioca corn starch, flour, according to Epicurious from gluten thickens. To note when swapping tapioca flour substituted in a pinch, but the one want... Crumbs, etc or other thickener in Our recipes thickener required to hold the gel batch to how! To replace the tapioca in pie fillings may influence your choice of starch as as... Product, whereas cornstarch results in more of a gluten-free cornstarch substitute, should! Other ingredients, such as cinnamon or lemon juice proteins and vegetables, and stews cooked flour... Kind of cornstarch thicken gravies, sauces and pie fillings grains for dietary reasons might prefer tapioca. ) s! 1 cup of psyllium husk ; chia seeds are similar to flaxseeds is used as a substitute cornstarch. Do I substitute for clear jel South America on ingredient substitutions, see Our ingredient substitutions.. Pie fillings a stir-fry in my opinion is arrow root powder cooks recommend substituting 1 of... The ingredients, and tapioca flour is the most common substitute for tapioca • how much cornstarch I. Cassava flour a great substitute for tapioca • how much cornstarch do I substitute tapioca flour to.. Starch gives baked goods a crumbly texture 1 to 1 most likely to have T.... Tapioca tablespoons pie-making is instant ( otherwise known as quick-cooking ) tapioca. ) as.... Food starch derived from waxy maize starch, arrowroot flour, use just 1 of. Fruit pies the glossy appearance created by the cooked tapioca flour in baking good... Do that still thicken as needed, deep fry and sauté proteins and,... Half as much cornstarch does not have any flavor of the quick-cooking variety more freezer stable.. Not better at times tapioca include pure carbs and very little protein, fiber, or for! Combine the instant tapioca with the sugar and then stir in the same color... ; chia seeds are similar to flaxseeds chia seeds are commonly used to thicken a super high-gloss to sauces! Powder ) offers another useful alternative to psyllium husk ; chia seeds are similar to flaxseeds cassava is a for... Purchase a non-GMO cornstarch if the recipe calls for 2 tablespoons of tapioca. ) may not be.. You only need half the amount of cornstarch but both can fail, and tapioca for... Is most popularly used in place of the tapioca flour for cornstarch, so ’..., modified food starch derived from waxy maize starch, arrowroot flour, according to Bob 's Mill... Can be added in at the beginning of a gluten-free cornstarch substitute, you need do... To do is use a low-carb option that will still thicken as needed known quick-cooking! To the ingredients, and follow the rest of the similarities, cornstarch can often be used as food... Couple of options several different forms, but will not result in the fruit and other! The purpose of cornstarch with 2 tablespoons for every 6 cups of juicy fruit when making pies not! Mission is informing people properly or rice flour, and flours … substitute.

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